Hegemony and Historiography: The Politics of Pedagogy
by Yvette Claire Rosser, PhD - A.B.D.
- 1. from a commonly seem graffiti on walls in Dhaka, signed
- 2. It is, for example, a citizen's duty to follow the
rules or to question them?
- 3. Bangladesh Education Commission Report, Qudrat-e-Khuda,
chair, May, 1974, p. i.
- 4. ibid, p 2.
- 5. National Education Policy, 1986, quoted from Ministry
of Human Resource Development Statement in P.D. Sukla, The New Education
Policy in India (New Delhi, 1988) p. 4.
- 6. National Council on Educational Research and Training.
Recommendations of the National Steering Committee on Textbooks Evaluation,
(New Delhi: NCERT, 1993), p. 3.
- 7. ibid, p. 9.
- 8. Powell, Avril. "Perceptions of the South Asian
Past: Ideology, Nationalism and School History Textbooks," in Crook,
Nigel (ed.) The Transmission of Knowledge in South Asia, Essays in Education,
Religion, History, and Politics, (Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1996),
- 9. The National Education Policy, Ministry of Education,
Islamabad, 1978, p.1.
- 10. this report provoked considerable controversy when
it was released in Britain.
- 11. National Curriculum History Working Group, 'Relationship
of History to the Rest of the School Curriculum', Final Report (London, 1990)
- 12. Appleby, Joyce, Lynn Hunt and Margaret Jacob. Telling
the Truth About History, (New York: Norton & Company, 1994.)
13. Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me, Everything Your American
History Textbooks Got Wrong, (New York: The New York Press, 1995).
14. Textbook hegemony will be discussed later in this paper.
- 15. Boyd, Carolyn. Historia Patria: Politics, History
& National Identity in Spain, 1875-1975, (Princeton, 1997).
- 16. The world of social science research has experienced
a catharsis during the past few decades that has catalyzed the field of study.
Post-modernism, critical-theory and other dynamic approaches have problematized
basic assumptions and standard methodologies of research and analysis. On
one end of the spectrum are culturally relativistic models that do not accept
causal explanations or conventional social science theorizing. In the extreme,
this meta-theoretical approach can create an overly reflexive paralyzing angst,
or an inability to recognize any relationships. At the other end are rational
utility models that attempt to uncover coherent structure in chaos and chart
its function and predictability. Whichever position the researcher takes,
on the qualitative/quantitative continuum, there is a growing realization
that, in the field of socio-historical research, any approach, any attempt
at understanding, is simultaneously influenced by the subject in question,
and by the orientation of the scholar. From any angle, historical research
is a continuous activity of co-construction--even the most pedantic of the
positivists experience this process.
- 17. Spring, Joel. The American School, 1642-1990, Varieties
of Historical Interpretation of the Foundations and Development of American
Education, (White Plains, NY: Longman, 1990), p. 73.
- 18. ibid, p. 74.
- 19. ibid, p. 75.
- 20. Bowles and Gintis, Schooling in a Capitalist Society,
(New York: Basic Books, 1976), p. 28.
- 21. See P.J. Marshall, Problems of Empire, (London:
George Allen and Unwin, 1968).
- 22. Krishna Kumar, Political Agenda in Education: A
Study of Colonialist and Nationalist Ideas, (New Delhi: Sage Publications,
1991), p. 26.
- 23. Kalyan K. Chatterjee, English Education in India:
Issues and Opinions, (New Delhi: Macmillan, 1976) p. , 1.
- 24. Attributed to a director of the East India Company,
1790, quoted from Parliamentary Papers, 1852-53, p. 113, (as per Kalyan Chatterjee).
- 25. P. L. Rawat, History of Indian Education, (Agra:
- 26. Kalyan K. Chatterjee, English Education in India,
- 27. Ibid, p. 4.
- 28. Henry Sharp, Selection from Educational Records, Part
I, (Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing, Calcutta, 1920), p. 137.
- 29. Josselyn Hennessy, "British Education for an
Elite in India," in Governing Elites,, ed. Rupert Williams, (New
York: Oxford University Press, 1969), p. 136.
- 30. P.L. Rawat, History of Indian Education, p.
- 31. A.N. Basu, ed., Indian Education in Parliamentary
Papers, Part I, (Bombay: 1952), p. 145.
- 32. Krishna Kumar, Political Agenda of Education,
- 33. Kalyan K. Chatterjee, , English Education ,
- 34. Ibid, p. 11.
- 35. Ibid, p. 8.
- 36. Ibid, p. 15.
- 37. Krishna Kumar, Political Agenda of Education,
- 38. Some Utilitarians, such as Mills, advocated translating
English literature into the indigenous languages.
- 39. Kalyan K. Chatterjee, English Education, p.
- 40. Kumar, Political Agenda in Education, p. 68.
- 41. Judith Walsh, Growing Up in British India,
(London: Holmes and Meier, 1983), p. 44.
- 42. Kenneth Jones, The New Cambridge History of India,
Socio-religious reform movements in British India. (New York: Cambridge
University Press, 1989), p. 58.
- 43. Ibid
- 44. Ibid, p. 61.
- 45. David L Elliott and Arthur Woodward, eds. Textbooks
and Schooling in the United States: Eighty-ninth Yearbook of the National
Society for the Study of Education ,Part I. (Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1990), p. 4.
- 46. It wasn't until the mass education experiments of
the twentieth century that non-elites had access to education. Prior to the
modern era, education was the exclusive domain of the upper classes, in England,
Greece, Rome, India, the USA, etc.
- 47. David L Elliott and Arthur Woodward ,p. 4.
- 48. M. K. Gandhi as cited by Dharampal in The Beautiful
Tree: Indigenous Indian Education in the Eighteenth Century (New Delhi: Sita
Ram Goel for Biblia Impex Private Limited, 1983), p. vi.
- 49. Gail Minault points out that a redirection of the
sources of patronage from princely endowments to government funding influenced
the kind of choices that were made.
- 50. See Gloria Gannaway, Transforming Mind: A Critical
Cognitive Activity. Series in Language and Ideology, (Westport, CT: Bergin
& Garvey, 1994).
- 51. Krishna Kumar, Political Agenda of Education, p. 73.
- 52. The India Review 11 (November 1918), p. 290.
- 53. Krishna Kumar, Origins, of India's Textbook Culture,
Occasional Papers on History and Society No. 47 (New Delhi: Nehru Memorial
Museum and Library, 1987), p. 13.
- 54. Richey, J.A., (ed.), Selections from Educational Records,
Part II 1840-1859, (New Delhi: Published for the National Archives of India
by the Manager of Publications, 1965), p. 301.
- 55. Sir Thomas Raleigh, Lord Curzon of India, (London:
Macmillan, 1906), p. 316.
- 56. C.A. Bayly, Colonial Rule and the 'Information
Order' in South Asia, Crook, Nigel (ed.) The Transmission of Knowledge
in South Asia, Essays on Education, Religion, History, and Politics, (Oxford
University Press, Delhi, 1996), p. 308.
- 57. Kazi Shahidullah. The Purpose and Impact of Government
Policy on Pathshala Gurumohashoys in Nineteenth-century Bengal, Crook,
Nigel (ed.) The Transmission of Knowledge in South Asia, Essays on Education,
Religion, History, and Politics, (Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1996).
- 58. ibid, p. 119.
- 59. W. Adam, Reports on the State of Education in Bengal
(1835 and 1838) ,(ed. Anatanath Basu) Calcutta, 1941.
- 60. Kazi Shahidullah, p. 120.
- 61. ibid, p. 121.
- 62. ibid, p1 22.
- 63. ibid.
- 64. ibid, 123.
- 65. ibid, 124.
- 66. ibid, 125.
- 67. ibid.
- 68. quoted in Kazi Shahidullah from: Government of Bengal,
Report of Public Instruction in Bengal (Calcutta, 1863-64) appendix A, pp.
- 69. Kazi Shahidullah, p. 127.
- 70. Katz, Michael. The Irony of Early School Reform.
(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968).
- 71. In Bangladesh, a organization that has seemingly mediated
education for disadvantage children is the Underprivileged Children's Education
Project that has been successfully education working children for twenty five
years and has a very low drop out rate. This has been accomplished through
a program of teacher intervention and community involvement.
- 72. Parallels between the educational philosophy of John
Dewey and Rabindranath Tagore can easily be discerned.
- 73. George Counts. Dare the Schools Build a New Social
Order, (New York: John Da, 1932 ).
- 74. ibid, p. 5.
- 75. Michael James. Social Reconstruction Through Education,,
(New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1995).
- 76. William Bennett, Our Children and Our Country,
(New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988).
- 77. Apple, Michael. "Is Social Transformation Always
Progressive?" in Social Reconstruction Through Education ,
The Philosophy, History, and Curricula of a Radical Ideal. James, Michael
E. , ed. (New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1995), p. 8.
- 78. Spring, Joel. Conflict of Interests, The Politics
of American Education. Second Edition, (New York: Longman Publishing Group,
1993), p. 21..
- 79. Reid, William. In Pursuit of Curriculum, Schooling
and the Public Interest. (New Jersey: Ablex, 1992), p. 162.
- 80. Apple, Michael. Ideology and Curriculum. (Second Edition
1990, New York: Rutledge, 1993), p. vii
- 81. ibid.
- 82. ibid, p. vii-viii.
- 83. ibid, p. vii-ix.
- 84. ibid, p. 2.
- 85. ibid.
- 86. ibid, p. 3.
- 87. Raymond Williams, 'Base and Superstructure in Marxist
Cultural Theory,' Schooling and Capitalism, Roger Dale, et al, (London: Routledge
& Kegan Paul, 1976), p. 205.
- 88. Apple, p. 7.
- 89. ibid, p. 8.
- 90. ibid, p. 11.
- 91. The English translation is faithful to the original
- 92. Pakistani Studies for Secondary Classes, (Punjab
Textbook Board, Lahore, 1997), p. 205.
- 93. Contemporary World History, A History Textbook
for Class XII, Part I, Arjun Dev, Indira Arjun Dev, (National Council
of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi, 1995).
- 94. An Introduction to Pakistani Studies, for Intermediate/Senior
Cambridge Classes, Rabbani, M. Ikram and Sayyid, Monawwar Ali. (Lahore:
The Caravan Book House, 1992), p. 319.
- 95. These statements were selected from several interviews
with Bangladeshi students.
- 96. At present I am investigating Bangladeshi textbooks
to substantiate or refute these preliminary findings. Because of the formative
state of this research, a comparative study of textbooks published in Bangladesh
between 1971 and 1998 is not included in this paper.
- 97. Amirali, P. and A. H. Nayyar. 'Rewriting the History
of Pakistan', in M.A. Khan (ed.) Islam, Politics and the State: The Pakistan
Experience (London, 1985), p. 166
- 98. Geography and Civics, Class VII, (West Pakistan
Textbook Board, Lahore, 1953).
- 99. Geography and Civics, Class VII, (West Pakistan
Textbook Board, Lahore, 1962).
- 100. See Example #2 in Appendix I for complete tables
- 101. See Example #3 in Appendix I for a chapter titled,
"Mahatma Gandhi, Man of Peace".
- 102. Refers to Gujarati of the merchant class.
- 103. Nayyar, p 165.
- 104. Powell, p. 222.
- 105. ibid.
- 106. Zafar, M.A. Pakistani Studies for Secondary Education
for F.A., etc., (Lahore 1986), p. 4-7.
- 107. This paper was written prior to my current research
into the on-going debate between the Nehruvian school of secular socialists
and the Hindu Nationalists, therefore that very interesting current controversy
is not included in this discussion.
- 108. Powell, p. 217.
- 109. National Curriculum History Working Group, 'Relationship
of History to the Rest of the School Curriculum', Final Report (London, 1990)
- 110. Powell, p. 222.
- 111. Mubarak Ali (Khan) "Akbar in Pakistani Textbooks',
a paper presented at a seminar on 'Akbar and his Age' held at the ICHR, New
Delhi, 15-17 Oct. 1992, the full text of which was published in Pioneer
on 13 Nov. 1992, under the title, 'Akbar in Pakistan: Historians malign him
as anti-Islam, says Mubarak Ali'.
- 112. Social Studies for Class VI, (Punjab Textbook
Board, Lahore, 1996), p. 114.
- 113. In Pakistani Studies Class IX-X, (Punjab Textbook
Board, Lahore, 1997), p. 18.
- 114. Pakistani Studies for Secondary Classes, (Punjab
Textbook Board, 1997).
- 115. Rabbani, M. Ikram and Monawwar Ali Sayyid. An
Introduction to Pakistani Studies, for Intermediate/Senior Cambridge Classes,
(Lahore: The Caravan Book House, 1992).
- 116. Mubarak Ali p. 2-3.
- 117. Satish Chandra, Medieval India, A History Textbook
for Class XI, (NCERT, New Delhi, 1990), pp. 152 - 172 devoted twenty pages
to a detailed description of Akbar's reign.
- 118. Powell, p. 205.
- 119. Romila Thapar, Medieval India: History Textbook
for Class VII (NCERT: New Delhi, 188), p. 94.
- 120. Social Studies For Class VI, (Sindh Textbooks Board,
Jamshoro), April 1997.
- 121. ibid, from Chapter 7 .
- 122. from personal interviews in Sindh.
- 123. Powell, p. 203.
- 124. J. Husain, The Illustrated History of Pakistan,
(Karachi, 1981-83), p. 26.
- 125. Thapar, Medieval India, p. 25-6
- 126. Chandra, p. 205.
- 127. Zafar, Pakistan Studies, p. 7.
- 128. Husain, p. 105
- 129. Chandra, p. 151-2.
- 130. Social Studies for Class Six, (NCTB: Dhaka, 1997),
- 131. Social Studies for Class Seven, (NCTB: Dhaka, 1997),
- 132. ibid, p. 55.
- 133. Muhammad Ishaq, author and editor, Secondary History,
For Class Nine and Ten, Bangladesh School Textbook Board, first published
June 1973, Revised Edition: November 1977, reprint: 1983.
- 134. translated by Iftakhar Iqbal (Shefa), my dedicated
- 135. Powell, p. 96.
- 136. Powell, p. 219.
- 137. ibid, p. 221.
- 138. ibid, p. 223.
- 139. Ironically, this echoes the Pakistani version of
historical fact and the inevitability of the Two Nation Theory.
- 140. It has also been conversely argued that for centuries
in Bengal, Hindus and Muslims had lived together quite seamlessly and continued
to operate within the social system. When the census of 1881 revealed a Muslim
majority in Bengal, it came as a surprise to the colonial census takers and
to the local inhabitants, because there had been a continuity of culture among
the social groups, until forced by colonial classifications to declare their
- 141. R.C. Majumdar, Glimpses of Bengal in the Nineteenth
Century, ( Calcutta: 1960) 5-6.