Footnotes from
Hegemony and Historiography: The Politics of Pedagogy
by Yvette Claire Rosser, PhD - A.B.D.

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Footnotes:

1. from a commonly seem graffiti on walls in Dhaka, signed by "ASA"
2. It is, for example, a citizen's duty to follow the rules or to question them?
3. Bangladesh Education Commission Report, Qudrat-e-Khuda, chair, May, 1974, p. i.
4. ibid, p 2.
5. National Education Policy, 1986, quoted from Ministry of Human Resource Development Statement in P.D. Sukla, The New Education Policy in India (New Delhi, 1988) p. 4.
6. National Council on Educational Research and Training. Recommendations of the National Steering Committee on Textbooks Evaluation, (New Delhi: NCERT, 1993), p. 3.
7. ibid, p. 9.
8. Powell, Avril. "Perceptions of the South Asian Past: Ideology, Nationalism and School History Textbooks," in Crook, Nigel (ed.) The Transmission of Knowledge in South Asia, Essays in Education, Religion, History, and Politics, (Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1996), p. 191.
9. The National Education Policy, Ministry of Education, Islamabad, 1978, p.1.
10. this report provoked considerable controversy when it was released in Britain.
11. National Curriculum History Working Group, 'Relationship of History to the Rest of the School Curriculum', Final Report (London, 1990) p. 183.
12. Appleby, Joyce, Lynn Hunt and Margaret Jacob. Telling the Truth About History, (New York: Norton & Company, 1994.)
13. Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me, Everything Your American History Textbooks Got Wrong, (New York: The New York Press, 1995).
14. Textbook hegemony will be discussed later in this paper.
15. Boyd, Carolyn. Historia Patria: Politics, History & National Identity in Spain, 1875-1975, (Princeton, 1997).
16. The world of social science research has experienced a catharsis during the past few decades that has catalyzed the field of study. Post-modernism, critical-theory and other dynamic approaches have problematized basic assumptions and standard methodologies of research and analysis. On one end of the spectrum are culturally relativistic models that do not accept causal explanations or conventional social science theorizing. In the extreme, this meta-theoretical approach can create an overly reflexive paralyzing angst, or an inability to recognize any relationships. At the other end are rational utility models that attempt to uncover coherent structure in chaos and chart its function and predictability. Whichever position the researcher takes, on the qualitative/quantitative continuum, there is a growing realization that, in the field of socio-historical research, any approach, any attempt at understanding, is simultaneously influenced by the subject in question, and by the orientation of the scholar. From any angle, historical research is a continuous activity of co-construction--even the most pedantic of the positivists experience this process.
17. Spring, Joel. The American School, 1642-1990, Varieties of Historical Interpretation of the Foundations and Development of American Education, (White Plains, NY: Longman, 1990), p. 73.
18. ibid, p. 74.
19. ibid, p. 75.
20. Bowles and Gintis, Schooling in a Capitalist Society, (New York: Basic Books, 1976), p. 28.
21. See P.J. Marshall, Problems of Empire, (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1968).
22. Krishna Kumar, Political Agenda in Education: A Study of Colonialist and Nationalist Ideas, (New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1991), p. 26.
23. Kalyan K. Chatterjee, English Education in India: Issues and Opinions, (New Delhi: Macmillan, 1976) p. , 1.
24. Attributed to a director of the East India Company, 1790, quoted from Parliamentary Papers, 1852-53, p. 113, (as per Kalyan Chatterjee).
25. P. L. Rawat, History of Indian Education, (Agra: Ram Prasad).
26. Kalyan K. Chatterjee, English Education in India, p. 2.
27. Ibid, p. 4.
28. Henry Sharp, Selection from Educational Records, Part I, (Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing, Calcutta, 1920), p. 137.
29. Josselyn Hennessy, "British Education for an Elite in India," in Governing Elites,, ed. Rupert Williams, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1969), p. 136.
30. P.L. Rawat, History of Indian Education, p. 128.
31. A.N. Basu, ed., Indian Education in Parliamentary Papers, Part I, (Bombay: 1952), p. 145.
32. Krishna Kumar, Political Agenda of Education, p. 5.
33. Kalyan K. Chatterjee, , English Education , p. 10.
34. Ibid, p. 11.
35. Ibid, p. 8.
36. Ibid, p. 15.
37. Krishna Kumar, Political Agenda of Education, p. 30
38. Some Utilitarians, such as Mills, advocated translating English literature into the indigenous languages.
39. Kalyan K. Chatterjee, English Education, p. 53.
40. Kumar, Political Agenda in Education, p. 68.
41. Judith Walsh, Growing Up in British India, (London: Holmes and Meier, 1983), p. 44.
42. Kenneth Jones, The New Cambridge History of India, Socio-religious reform movements in British India. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 58.
43. Ibid
44. Ibid, p. 61.
45. David L Elliott and Arthur Woodward, eds. Textbooks and Schooling in the United States: Eighty-ninth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education ,Part I. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990), p. 4.
46. It wasn't until the mass education experiments of the twentieth century that non-elites had access to education. Prior to the modern era, education was the exclusive domain of the upper classes, in England, Greece, Rome, India, the USA, etc.
47. David L Elliott and Arthur Woodward ,p. 4.
48. M. K. Gandhi as cited by Dharampal in The Beautiful Tree: Indigenous Indian Education in the Eighteenth Century (New Delhi: Sita Ram Goel for Biblia Impex Private Limited, 1983), p. vi.
49. Gail Minault points out that a redirection of the sources of patronage from princely endowments to government funding influenced the kind of choices that were made.
50. See Gloria Gannaway, Transforming Mind: A Critical Cognitive Activity. Series in Language and Ideology, (Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1994).
51. Krishna Kumar, Political Agenda of Education, p. 73.
52. The India Review 11 (November 1918), p. 290.
53. Krishna Kumar, Origins, of India's Textbook Culture, Occasional Papers on History and Society No. 47 (New Delhi: Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, 1987), p. 13.
54. Richey, J.A., (ed.), Selections from Educational Records, Part II 1840-1859, (New Delhi: Published for the National Archives of India by the Manager of Publications, 1965), p. 301.
55. Sir Thomas Raleigh, Lord Curzon of India, (London: Macmillan, 1906), p. 316.
56. C.A. Bayly, Colonial Rule and the 'Information Order' in South Asia, Crook, Nigel (ed.) The Transmission of Knowledge in South Asia, Essays on Education, Religion, History, and Politics, (Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1996), p. 308.
57. Kazi Shahidullah. The Purpose and Impact of Government Policy on Pathshala Gurumohashoys in Nineteenth-century Bengal, Crook, Nigel (ed.) The Transmission of Knowledge in South Asia, Essays on Education, Religion, History, and Politics, (Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1996).
58. ibid, p. 119.
59. W. Adam, Reports on the State of Education in Bengal (1835 and 1838) ,(ed. Anatanath Basu) Calcutta, 1941.
60. Kazi Shahidullah, p. 120.
61. ibid, p. 121.
62. ibid, p1 22.
63. ibid.
64. ibid, 123.
65. ibid, 124.
66. ibid, 125.
67. ibid.
68. quoted in Kazi Shahidullah from: Government of Bengal, Report of Public Instruction in Bengal (Calcutta, 1863-64) appendix A, pp. 342-3.
69. Kazi Shahidullah, p. 127.
70. Katz, Michael. The Irony of Early School Reform. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968).
71. In Bangladesh, a organization that has seemingly mediated education for disadvantage children is the Underprivileged Children's Education Project that has been successfully education working children for twenty five years and has a very low drop out rate. This has been accomplished through a program of teacher intervention and community involvement.
72. Parallels between the educational philosophy of John Dewey and Rabindranath Tagore can easily be discerned.
73. George Counts. Dare the Schools Build a New Social Order, (New York: John Da, 1932 ).
74. ibid, p. 5.
75. Michael James. Social Reconstruction Through Education,, (New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1995).
76. William Bennett, Our Children and Our Country, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988).
77. Apple, Michael. "Is Social Transformation Always Progressive?" in Social Reconstruction Through Education , The Philosophy, History, and Curricula of a Radical Ideal. James, Michael E. , ed. (New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1995), p. 8.
78. Spring, Joel. Conflict of Interests, The Politics of American Education. Second Edition, (New York: Longman Publishing Group, 1993), p. 21..
79. Reid, William. In Pursuit of Curriculum, Schooling and the Public Interest. (New Jersey: Ablex, 1992), p. 162.
80. Apple, Michael. Ideology and Curriculum. (Second Edition 1990, New York: Rutledge, 1993), p. vii
81. ibid.
82. ibid, p. vii-viii.
83. ibid, p. vii-ix.
84. ibid, p. 2.
85. ibid.
86. ibid, p. 3.
87. Raymond Williams, 'Base and Superstructure in Marxist Cultural Theory,' Schooling and Capitalism, Roger Dale, et al, (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1976), p. 205.
88. Apple, p. 7.
89. ibid, p. 8.
90. ibid, p. 11.
91. The English translation is faithful to the original Bengali version.
92. Pakistani Studies for Secondary Classes, (Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, 1997), p. 205.
93. Contemporary World History, A History Textbook for Class XII, Part I, Arjun Dev, Indira Arjun Dev, (National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi, 1995).
94. An Introduction to Pakistani Studies, for Intermediate/Senior Cambridge Classes, Rabbani, M. Ikram and Sayyid, Monawwar Ali. (Lahore: The Caravan Book House, 1992), p. 319.
95. These statements were selected from several interviews with Bangladeshi students.
96. At present I am investigating Bangladeshi textbooks to substantiate or refute these preliminary findings. Because of the formative state of this research, a comparative study of textbooks published in Bangladesh between 1971 and 1998 is not included in this paper.
97. Amirali, P. and A. H. Nayyar. 'Rewriting the History of Pakistan', in M.A. Khan (ed.) Islam, Politics and the State: The Pakistan Experience (London, 1985), p. 166
98. Geography and Civics, Class VII, (West Pakistan Textbook Board, Lahore, 1953).
99. Geography and Civics, Class VII, (West Pakistan Textbook Board, Lahore, 1962).
100. See Example #2 in Appendix I for complete tables of contents.
101. See Example #3 in Appendix I for a chapter titled, "Mahatma Gandhi, Man of Peace".
102. Refers to Gujarati of the merchant class.
103. Nayyar, p 165.
104. Powell, p. 222.
105. ibid.
106. Zafar, M.A. Pakistani Studies for Secondary Education for F.A., etc., (Lahore 1986), p. 4-7.
107. This paper was written prior to my current research into the on-going debate between the Nehruvian school of secular socialists and the Hindu Nationalists, therefore that very interesting current controversy is not included in this discussion.
108. Powell, p. 217.
109. National Curriculum History Working Group, 'Relationship of History to the Rest of the School Curriculum', Final Report (London, 1990) p. 183.
110. Powell, p. 222.
111. Mubarak Ali (Khan) "Akbar in Pakistani Textbooks', a paper presented at a seminar on 'Akbar and his Age' held at the ICHR, New Delhi, 15-17 Oct. 1992, the full text of which was published in Pioneer on 13 Nov. 1992, under the title, 'Akbar in Pakistan: Historians malign him as anti-Islam, says Mubarak Ali'.
112. Social Studies for Class VI, (Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, 1996), p. 114.
113. In Pakistani Studies Class IX-X, (Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, 1997), p. 18.
114. Pakistani Studies for Secondary Classes, (Punjab Textbook Board, 1997).
115. Rabbani, M. Ikram and Monawwar Ali Sayyid. An Introduction to Pakistani Studies, for Intermediate/Senior Cambridge Classes, (Lahore: The Caravan Book House, 1992).
116. Mubarak Ali p. 2-3.
117. Satish Chandra, Medieval India, A History Textbook for Class XI, (NCERT, New Delhi, 1990), pp. 152 - 172 devoted twenty pages to a detailed description of Akbar's reign.
118. Powell, p. 205.
119. Romila Thapar, Medieval India: History Textbook for Class VII (NCERT: New Delhi, 188), p. 94.
120. Social Studies For Class VI, (Sindh Textbooks Board, Jamshoro), April 1997.
121. ibid, from Chapter 7 .
122. from personal interviews in Sindh.
123. Powell, p. 203.
124. J. Husain, The Illustrated History of Pakistan, (Karachi, 1981-83), p. 26.
125. Thapar, Medieval India, p. 25-6
126. Chandra, p. 205.
127. Zafar, Pakistan Studies, p. 7.
128. Husain, p. 105
129. Chandra, p. 151-2.
130. Social Studies for Class Six, (NCTB: Dhaka, 1997), p. 51.
131. Social Studies for Class Seven, (NCTB: Dhaka, 1997), p. 34.
132. ibid, p. 55.
133. Muhammad Ishaq, author and editor, Secondary History, For Class Nine and Ten, Bangladesh School Textbook Board, first published June 1973, Revised Edition: November 1977, reprint: 1983.
134. translated by Iftakhar Iqbal (Shefa), my dedicated research assistant.
135. Powell, p. 96.
136. Powell, p. 219.
137. ibid, p. 221.
138. ibid, p. 223.
139. Ironically, this echoes the Pakistani version of historical fact and the inevitability of the Two Nation Theory.
140. It has also been conversely argued that for centuries in Bengal, Hindus and Muslims had lived together quite seamlessly and continued to operate within the social system. When the census of 1881 revealed a Muslim majority in Bengal, it came as a surprise to the colonial census takers and to the local inhabitants, because there had been a continuity of culture among the social groups, until forced by colonial classifications to declare their religious differentness.
141. R.C. Majumdar, Glimpses of Bengal in the Nineteenth Century, ( Calcutta: 1960) 5-6.

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